STEP 1: Prevention and early detection


Stopping smoking will reduce the risk of oesophagogastric cancer.

Risk factors

There are very few people at high risk. People with the following risk factors are at increased risk:

Oesophageal adenocarcinoma

Male gender, obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux, Barrett’s oesophagus, tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and increasing age

Oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma

Heavy alcohol consumption, tobacco smoking, increasing age, caustic injury and achalasia

Gastric cancer

Increasing age, Helicobacter pylori bacteria, previous partial gastrectomy (especially more than 20 years ago), tobacco smoking, pernicious anaemia and family history of gastric cancer

* Most common risk factors are bolded.

Early detection

Being aware of the risk factors and who is at high risk can guide monitoring and referral to a specialist.

Careful monitoring of Barrett’s oesophagus may lead to early detection.

Screening recommendations

There are no formal population-based screening programs for oesophagogastric cancer in Australia.