STEP 1: Prevention and early detection


The causes of high-grade glioma are not fully understood, and there is currently no clear prevention strategy. The only known cause is ionising radiation, but these cases are rare.

Risk factors

  • Age (over 40 years)
  • Male gender
  • Race – twice as common in people of Caucasian descent
  • Exposure to ionising radiation, vinyl chloride, pesticides, petroleum refining, synthetic rubber manufacturing
  • Rare familial genetic syndromes such as:
    • neurofibromatosis type 1 and 2
    • Li-Fraumeni cancer syndrome
    • Turcot syndrome
    • multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1
    • Lynch syndrome
    • Gorlin syndrome
    • tuberous sclerosis complex
    • Cowden’s disease.

Screening recommendations

Screening has not been proven to be beneficial in detecting high-grade glioma.