STEP 1: Prevention and early detection


The causes of Hodgkin lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) are not fully understood, and there is currently no clear prevention strategy.

Risk factors

All ages are at risk for Hodgkin lymphoma and DLBCL. However, DLBCL is most common in middle-aged to older adults. There is a ‘peak’ of higher incidence of Hodgkin lymphoma in adolescents and young adults, as well as older adults.

Other risk factors include:

  • intrinsic immunosuppression – patients who have received an organ transplant, are HIV-positive or are being therapeutically treated with immunosuppressants
  • Epstein-Barr virus infection with immune deficiency
  • family history of lymphoproliferative disorder.

Risk factors specific to DLBCL include gender (males have a slightly higher risk), a high BMI, B-cell activating autoimmune diseases, prolonged hair dye use, obesity and personal or family history of a lymphoproliferative disorder.

Early detection

There is no established role for screening in Hodgkin lymphoma or DLBCL. People at risk of developing immunodeficiency-associated lymphoma should be made aware of this increased risk.