1.2 Risk factors

1.2 Risk factors

The major risk factors for developing HCC are:

  • cirrhosis of the liver of any cause
  • history of moderate to heavy alcohol intake
  • obesity
  • HBV infection (particularly for those with an extended period of exposure, childhood-acquired and high viral load, older age, ethnicity (African, Asian or Aboriginal) and male gender).

The risk factors for developing HCC in people with HCV are:

  • chronic HCV infection with advanced fibrosis
  • a family history of HCC.

Other risk factors for HCC include male gender, increasing age, HBV and HCV co-infection, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, type 2 diabetes, iron overload, aflatoxin exposure and tobacco smoking.

Further information

Detailed policy information on HBV and HCC is available in the liver cancer chapter of Cancer Council Australia’s National cancer prevention policy.